Glossary

Acre:
A common unit of land measure equal to 43,560 square feet or 1/640 square mile.

Allowable Harvest Level:
The amount of wood that may be harvested annually or periodically from a specified area over a stated period in accordance with the objectives of management.

Best Management Practices:
The most beneficial and practical application of scientific, economic and social principles to the administration of a forest for specified objectives.

Board Feet:
The amount of timber equivalent to a piece of wood 12 inches square and 1 inch thick.

Biodiversity:
In the natural world, the greater the number of species co-existing in a biotic community, the more "diverse" it is. This is generally viewed as healthier and preferable to having fewer species. Natural events can often alter the number of species in any community.

Clear Cutting System:
A timber harvest method in which an entire stand of trees is removed at one time; regeneration is by natural or assisted means.

Commercial Forest Land:
Forest lands capable of growing marketable timber for current or future use.

Cord:
A unit of measure for wood, usually specified as a stacked pile measuring from 8 feet long, 4 feet high and 4 feet wide. A "face cord" is often used to measure firewood and may vary from between one-third to one-half the size of a full cord.

Deforestation:
The removal of trees without replacing them with young trees.

Ecosystem:
All living things and their environment in an area of any size that form a logical unit, or system.

Environment:
The aggregate of surrounding conditions that affect the existence of or development of people or nature.

Forest:
A complex community of plants and animals in which trees are the most conspicuous members. A mixed forest includes both coniferous and deciduous trees.

Forest Cover Type:
A natural grouping of trees of mostly the same species.

Forester:
A trained professional responsible for planning and producing a healthy forest for Minnesotans.

Forest Inventory:
A statistical survey of Minnesota's forests that measures characteristics of the forest, including tree growth, tree mortality, forest health and forest age. The latest inventory, released in 1992, showed significant increases in all forest cover types from the previous 1977 inventory.

Generic Environmental Impact Statement:
An intensive study of the impact of timber harvesting in the State of Minnesota conducted for the Minnesota Environmental Quality Board.

Habitat:
The native environment of an animal or plant, or the kind of place that is natural for an animal or plant.

Hardwood:
Deciduous or broadleaf trees that do not have cones. In Minnesota, examples include oak, maple, ash, birch, walnut, hickory, elm and aspen, also known as poplar.

Harvesting:
Cutting mature trees for use as fuel or forest products. Careful harvesting will improve growing conditions for trees left standing in the forest.

Logger:
A professional who uses sophisticated equipment to harvest trees and deliver them to consumers where they are made into useful products.

Managed Forest:
A multiple-use forest where sustainable harvesting, thinning, pruning and reforestation are done. All of these tasks are accomplished according to a plan prepared by a professional forester.

Mature Forest:
Healthy trees that have grown to marketable size, suitable for harvest. The trees are at maximum growth and health.

Multiple-Use Forestry:
Any forestry practice that fulfills two or more objectives of management. Objectives include providing areas for recreation, wildlife habitat, watershed management and timber harvesting.

National Forests:
Large areas of forestland owned by the U.S. government and declared available to meet the public's needs for recreation, fresh water, grazing land, forest products and wildlife habitat. National forests are managed by the U.S. Forest Service under the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Minnesota has two national forests, the Superior and Chippewa.

National Parks:
Land owned by the U.S. government and set aside from some management practices such as timber harvesting and used primarily for recreation, wildlife habitat and wilderness. National parks are managed by the National Park Service under the U.S. Department of the Interior. The only national park in Minnesota is Voyageurs National Park.

Natural Regeneration:
Renewal of a tree crop by natural means rather than by replanting following timber harvest.

Old Growth Forest:
Forest stands in which the dominant cover types are mature or over-mature trees that have reached their maximum size. No harvest has occurred among these large, old trees and dead and fallen trees are as common as standing trees.

Over-Mature Forest:
Forest stands which are near the end of their life cycles and are vulnerable to insects, disease and decay.

Private Lands/Public Lands:
Private lands are owned by individuals or corporations. Public lands are owned by government at the federal, state, county, city, township or agency levels and therefore are considered owned by the public.

Pulpwood:
Wood cut and prepared for manufacture into wood pulp, commonly used in the manufacture of paper, oriented strand board, hardboard and other wood products.

Reforestation:
The planting of young trees in forests that have been affected by harvest, fire, disease, wind or other factors.

Renewable Resource:
Those parts of the natural world which can be used without being used up. Trees are an example of a resource that is replenished and therefore is renewed.

Reserved Forestland:
Acreage that is not available for timber harvesting. About 3 million acres of Minnesota's forested land is reserved for recreational use or set aside for scientific and natural uses, such as in state and national parks and the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness.

Sawtimber:
Trees considered suitable in size and quality for producing sawn timber.

Seedling:
A small tree grown from a seed.

Seed Tree Cutting:
A harvest method that leaves scattered mature trees on a site to produce seeds for new tree growth.

Selective Cutting:
The removal of specific trees and diseased or stunted trees, or thinning rows of trees to encourage growth of the remaining trees.

Silviculture:
The science and art of cultivating forest crops based on knowledge of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and on the varying factors at particular sites.

Slash:
The residue left on the ground after harvesting timber, including branches and limbs, which enrich the soil as they decompose and provide habitat for a variety of wildlife species.

Softwood:
Coniferous trees with needle-like or scale-like leaves. In Minnesota, examples include red pine, white pine, tamarack, spruce and cedar.

Stands:
Trees of a particular species and age growing in a specific area.

Stumpage:
Standing timber that is available for sale. Stumpage rights is the privilege to cut timber on its owner's land.

Sustained Yield:
Continuous production of forest resources from an area of land without depleting those resources on a long-term basis.

Timber:
A general term for forest crops and stands containing trees of commercial size and quality suitable for sawing into lumber.

Timber Auction:
Sale of stumpage by either written or oral bids submitted by prospective buyers.

Tree Farms:
Private lands managed by their owners for multiple uses. Owners are members of the American Tree Farm System and can obtain advice from the forest industry on a variety of issues.

Wildlife Habitat:
Natural areas where nondomesticated vertebrates--mammals, birds and fish--find food, water and shelter.

Woodpulp:
Wood fiber separated by mechanical or chemical means used to make paper and other products.